Upon the overthrow of the first Napoleon came the restoration of the Bourbon throne (Louis XVIII, succeeded by Charles X).
In July, 1830, an uprising of the upper tier of the bourgeoisie, or capitalist class—the aristocracy of finance—
overthrew the Bourbon throne, or landed aristocracy, and set up the throne of Orleans, a younger branch
of the house of Bourbon, with Louis Philippe as king.
From the month in which this revolution occurred, Louis Philippe's monarchy is called the "July Monarchy."
In February, 1848, a revolt of a lower tier of the capitalist class—the industrial bourgeoisie—
against the aristocracy of finance, in turn dethroned Louis Philippe.
The affair, also named from the month in which it took place, is the "February Revolution".
"The Eighteenth Brumaire" starts with that event.
On the 18th Brumaire (Nov. 9th), the post-revolutionary development of affairs in France enabled the first Napoleon
to take a step that led with inevitable certainty to the imperial throne.
The circumstance that fifty and odd years later similar events aided his nephew, Louis Bonaparte,
to take a similar step with a similar result.
Napoleon Bonaparte had made himself dictator by a coup d'état November 9, 1799
General Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the French Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate
Louis Bonaparte's coup d'état of 2 December 1851
What is a Brumaire, Precious ? /end Golem voice
French Revolutionary Calendar used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805
(and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871 when Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was President of France)
Napoléon II, Franz, Duke of Reichstadt, was not given a chance to rule
( I am watching the A&E series, Napoléon, and Napoleon II has not been born, yet!)
Vendémiaire in French (from Latin vindemia, "grape harvest"), starting 22, 23 or 24 September
Brumaire (from French brume, "fog"), starting 22, 23 or 24 October
Frimaire (From French frimas, "frost"), starting 21, 22 or 23 November
"The plotters essentially intimidated the commissions into declaring a provisional government,
the first form of the Consulate with Napoleon, Sieyès, and Ducos as Consuls. The lack of
reaction from the streets proved that the revolution was, indeed, over.
"A shabby compound of brute force and imposture, the 18th Brumaire was nevertheless
condoned, nay applauded, by the French nation."
- Holland, Arthur William (1911). "French Revolution"
These days, political events occur, as it were, twice — the first time as near-tragedy, the second time as farce*.
Paul Krugman blog
December 20, 2012
"The Eighteenth Brumaire of Barack Obama"
Gail Collins: Revolt of the Cliff Dwellers
".... imagine a game in which one player [Boehner] needs to go into a back room before he makes his bet
and get the approval of a herd of rabid ferrets....all eyes turned to the House speaker. And the rabid ferrets.
"....liberal Democrats could now be enjoying a much-anticipated opportunity
to complain that Obama sold them out."
He had all the cards, and he gave away the $250,000 one!
He dropped the ace of entitlements! But, once again,
the Republican majority in the House of Representatives
conspired to make Obama look good.
....the president made a serious offer while Boehner put up Plan B. Which does virtually nothing
but continue the Bush tax cuts for those making less than $1 million a year. Everything else
goes over the cliff. Laid-off workers getting extended unemployment benefits.
Doctors treating Medicare patients.
(AMA and MMA were preparing for the worst, before than vote that never happened.)
Honestly, it sounded like something that Eric Cantor typed up on his smartphone on the way over from his office.
“I know the Democrats are baffled at what we’re doing,” said Rep. Pete Sessions, R-Texas, during a rather sullen
Rules Committee meeting. “We’re trying to find a bill we can pass.”
Sure, blame the ferrets.
At bottom, Plan B is just an attempt to shift the blame if the country falls over the fiscal cliff, destroying
whatever faith Americans had in their national government and creating terror on Wall Street.
No matter what happens, let’s agree never again to call anything a “fiscal cliff.”
Imagine what would have happened if Congress and the president had said they were negotiating to
“put the fiscal horse back in the barn” by Jan. 1.
We’d be at the same place right now, but would anybody
be talking about a potential stock market collapse? I think not.
And if it weren’t for the psychological impact of the cliff thing, would it be so bad if the Bush tax cuts just expired?
It would save around $4 trillion over the next 10 years. The deficit would plummet, the fiscal horse would
be back in his stall, the gate to the pasture would be locked and there would be several ICBM missiles
guarding the budgetary barnyard.
Unfortunately, nobody in Washington seems to think this is a good plan.
If they can’t make a deal, on New Year’s Eve you can run around yelling:
“The fiscal horse is about to fall over a cliff!”
This, people, is what is known as having it all.